Different Types of Septic Systems – Leach Field Lines Diagram

In case you are creating a home or resort in a remote location and are planning on a renovation or effective waste management system, then you’ve definitely come across different septic systems or have a slight idea of what they’re supposed to do.

Two years ago, I had, not even the slightest hint of what putrid systems were and how they worked. All the same, I was amidst a detailed plan to create a family resort in the countryside and couldn’t afford connecting the drainage pipes all the way to the metropolitan.

I contacted a friend who had a vast experience in septic construction and everything that came with safe installation of the same. Even though it cost me a good dig in the pocket, I can attest that it was worth the installation.

Different septic structures are usually installed in remote places or rural locations where it’s hard to connect the waste management system to centralized treatment plants, thus leaving you with septic designs as the most reliable waste disposal facilitators.

Basically, septic systems are used in treating wastewater that’s accumulated from different types of household use. The starting points of installation are always around the house and beneath the ground.

The septic tank is part of the system and is usually sunk deeper in the ground. Natural treatment underlies the safe elimination of wastewater, either from the tanks or from leaching grounds.

Notably, there are three critical components that make up a complete septic unit. There is a septic cistern, a leaching field for absorption of water and a wastewater distributing system.

Before we take a look at the different types of septic structures available today, it’s critical that we first know how the designs work to eliminate waste.


The house is possibly the main source of waste that finds its way through the septic designs. Bathroom water, kitchen sink, the toilets, the different kinds of waste water will drain through the pipes to the reservoir for treatment.

After being deposited in the tanks, the separation of waste takes over. The solid matter is accumulated on the foot of the septic tub. Oil and wastewater are separated. Solid matter shouldn’t be carried along with the wastewater.

Wastewater is leached into soil after it is passed through the branched pipes that have porous sides. The deposition of waste and water should be done far from your home.

In most scenarios, it’s advisable that you incorporate pumps into the designs to help in the elimination of waste. Other mechanisms you can integrate into the systems are evaporation and the use of disinfectants.

Wastewater that’s leached into the soil relies on gravity. The final part of the septic system is usually the draining field. The quantity that’s let into the soil is dependent on the amount of water flow within the field area, within a day.

Additionally, the rate at which water leaches into soil is affected by the state of soil on the field.

The septic tank

Any professional would tell you a septic reservoir is potentially the most important part of the septic system. It’s the enclosed structure that usually stays buried beneath the ground.

In order to get the best out of your tank, it’s advisably more preferable to pick a waterproof design. A watertight design will store waste for a long time without cracking or breaking apart due to pressure.

When the waste treatment begins, different types of waste are deposited into the basin awaiting maceration. The breaking down of waste will create a slurry mixture that will be left to settle before filtration assumes it’s role.

The percolation process will help in sorting oil components from liquids. Heavy solid materials will be deposited on the reservoir’s bottom. Light solid waste floats. This includes grease and elements of petroleum.

The discharge of solids is effectuated thereafter and the remaining wastewater treated and leached into the draining fields.

The basic materials used to construct any septic system are plastic, fiberglass and concrete.

Drain Field & Piping System

These are usually constructed in free spaces where the creation of draining fields to be used for deposition won’t be a problem.

The system is quite simple, ,the connecting pipes lead waste to the septic reservoir. After separation of wastes, drainage pipes carry the wastewater to fields where they are leached and absorbed.

The system does a pretty good job in the filtration of pollutants from waste. The trenches leading to the seeping fields are thoroughly graveled.

To prevent the infestation of water by animals, durable geo fabrics have been included in the final parts of the construction, the fields.

Perforated pipes aid in waste distribution. They release the end product slowly and effectively.

Tip to consider

Inspection. Ensure the entire septic design is thoroughly checked by an expert from time to time, ideally, every three and six months. When the checking is done, the important thing to do is pump the system.

Oftentimes, clogging happens and this results in the accumulation of solid matter in the system. The resonate thing to do is eliminate the danger lest it affects the whole structure and the entire system is compromised.

Solid matter not only blocks drainage passages but also causes corrosion of the structure. Pumping eliminates all these.

The most common types of septic structures

Now that we’ve known how elementary septic designs work and the most critical components of the systems, let’s analyze the different models that would work well if installed in a remote home.

Conventional systems

These are perfect for small homes. Alternatively, they can be installed in smaller business structures. However, the conventional structure is not suitable for large groups.

A septic tank that’s connected to a wastewater seepage system holds the waste. The draining field is laid with gravel and geo fabricated to protect the system from contamination.

 Wastewater flowing from the house to the tank will be directed to the draining field, where the treatment is conducted naturally with the aid of microorganisms.


  • It’s easy to repair or maintain the system.


  • It’s rather hard to install the structure particularly when it’s intended for a small home.

Chamber systems

Chamber designs go all the way back. Their construction and supply began around six decades ago. Regardless, they’ve been as durable as in the old days.

Primarily, these are alternatives for areas with higher water tables. In case you live in an area where water is closer to the earth surface, you won’t have to worry as the Chambers will solve the risk of impecunious drainage.

The entire design is made of interconnected pipes leading to the tank and chambers.

When installing, ensure enough soil surrounds the chambers, because wastes move from the tank to chambers, where drainage occurs to the surrounding soil. The treatment by microbes will render the wastewater safe for the environment.


  • The system can be installed in places with higher water tables.


  • It’s tiresome to maintain the chambers.

Aerobic systems

Oxygen is let into the system to help with addition of nutrients. In aerobic designs, treatment is done twice. The first pretreatment is done in one tank. The latter is the final phase. It’s done in a second reservoir. The treatment processes are not only safe but also effective. 


  • It’s a safe waste treatment process.
  • The technique can be applied in a region with a lofty water table.
  • It’s perfect for small spaces where it’s hard to create or find a proper ground for a leach field.


  • Maintaining the two tanks is quite hectic but mandatory.


There’s no need for a graveled for a graveled field with the drip option. The drainage structures are shallowly buried approximately ten to fifteen inches from the ground surface.

With these designs, you don’t need to dig too deep to lay the pipes. It’s easier to install but more complicated to structure. There’s a need for caution when installing the dripping pipes beneath the earth surface.

Dose tanks are added to these designs to receive wastewater from the septic before releasing it to the drip structure. It does this slowly to keep the process at it’s optimality. However, the tank requires electricity to operate.


  • It’s an efficient structure that’s easy to install.


  • Extra electrical costs make the structure costly.

Sand filter

Wastewater flows from the septic cistern to the pumping chamber. Pumping moves the water to a sand filtrating system that’s basically a large box holding sand. The water is received at the top and filtered downward. It’s then released into soil.


  • It’s perfect for areas prone to flooding.


  • The structure should be maintained regularly.


These structures have closed tanks that are waterproof. When wastewater flows from the septic tank, the artificial draining field collects the waste and keeps it until it’s evaporated. There’s no need for an actual draining field with soil for water to seep.


  • It’s easier to maintain or install.


  • The structure should be installed in areas with hot climate for the water to evaporate faster.

Other designs

Besides these six models, we have an additional system that works just as worthwhile as the above-mentioned.

The mound system

A huge mound of sand is used as a leaching field. The wastewater seeps through the sand into the soil on the ground surface. It’s a system designed to cater for surrounds with soil lacking absorbent properties.


  • The mound is suitable for places with frivolous ground.


  • You need a lot of space. Additionally, the system requires constant maintenance.


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